Coriander (Dhaniya) refers to both a herb and a spice with the scientific name Coriandrum sativum. Farmers cultivate coriander mainly for its fruits and tender green leaves. Coriander is native to the Mediterranean area, and you can grow it in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. This spice has a fragrant odour and finds a pleasant aromatic taste when mixed with the vegetable. Due to important oil content, which varies from 0.1 – 1.0% in the dry seeds, it emanate an odour fragrant and aromatic taste. These essential oils are also use to flavour alcohol, prepare coca in confectionery, and hide offensive odours in pharmaceutical preparations.
Dried ground fruits are the main ingredients of curry powder. The young plants and the leaves are used in making chutneys and are also used as a condiment in curries and sauces. It also has medicinal properties, and the coriander herb is well-known for its carminative, diuretic, stomachic and aphrodisiac properties.
Climate and Soil Requirements
Farmers cultivate coriander mainly for leaf purposes. To get a higher grain yield, it has to be grown in specific seasons. Grain yields better when grown in dry and cool climates, especially frost-free during flowering and fruit sets. During the fruiting and flowering stage, cloudy weather is preferable as it favours pest attacks and diseases. It can be cultivated in almost all soil types as an irrigated crop, provided adequate organic matter. Coriander is best suitable for growing in black cotton soils under rainfed conditions.
When you prepare the soil, you should be well-known with some core factors, such as which equipment you should use in coriander farming. However, tractors play the main role because they should have the best capacity to mount the attachment. However, you can choose the Mahindra yuvo 415 DI utility tractor, which comes with 39 HP and fits according to your budget. And you can choose any other such as Mahindra 475, Eicher 241 etc.
Preparation of Land
Before the rainy season, farmers plough the land 3 to 4 times for rainfed areas. You must plant immediately after heavy rain to break the clods and avoid soil moisture. You should plough the land twice or thrice for crop irrigation and build beds and channels.
Seeding for Coriander Production
Farmers grow coriander as a rabi season crop in India’s North and Central places. They do the seedlings between October and November. It is also grown as a late Kharif crop in some areas of the above states, and its planting season falls between August and September.
They grow coriander from June to July and September to October in Tamil Nadu. The recommended seed rate is 10 to 15 kg per hectare of land. If stored for 15 to 30 days and then sown, seeds yield and germinate earlier than freshly harvested seeds. You may soak the seeds in water for 12 to 24 hours before sowing to increase germination percentage. The seeds are raked and divided into halves and are usually done in rows 15 cm between hills and 30 to 40 cm apart. Soil depth should be equal to or less than 3.0 cm. Farmers sow three to five seeds in the seedbed and cover with a native plough. Generally, it takes around 10 to15 days for coriander seeds to germinate.
Irrigation in Coriander Cultivation
You should give 1st irrigation immediately after sowing, the second on the third day, and subsequent irrigations at 6 to 10 days intervals. In the rainy season, crops hardly require any irrigation.
After 30 days of sowing do weeding and hoeing. You should cut the leaves closer together, and leave only two plants per hill. One or two more weeds are done depending on the growth.
Cultivation care in Coriander Cultivation
You should apply a pre-emergence spray of herbicide Fluchloralin 700 ml in 500 litres of water/ha. Thinning should be done after 1 month of sowing. After that, you should consider subsequent weeding when required.
Harvesting and yield
This crop is harvesting in about 90 to 110 days, depending on the variety and growing season. Therefore, you should harvest it after the fruits are fully ripe and turn green to brown. In the process of harvesting, you pull or cut the plants into small piles in the field to rub them with sticks or hands. After drying, the product is stored in paper-covered sacks. The average yield of coriander as a rainfed crop is between 400 to 500 kg/ha, while that of the irrigated crop is between 600 to 1200 kg/ha.
Along with the process of coriander farming, you should also consider the equipment that will help to boost the yield. Cultivators, Tillers and tractors are crucial factors in coriander farming. You can choose the Farmtrac 45 tractor in India and any other tractor brand.
For further information regarding coriander farming in India, stay tuned with us.