Cotton farming is known as profitable farming for farmers. It is produced in the form of a cash crop. Moreover, its crop has been started in many states of the country. Today many varieties of cotton are found in the markets. It has a higher yield in coastal areas, and long fibre cotton is considered the best and it is sold commercially with the help of a tractor trolley. If you are also planning to do cotton cultivation, then in this post, you have been told about the information related to cotton cultivation, how to cultivate cotton and the use of cotton.
Suitable Soil For Cotton Cultivation
The loamy loam soil and black soil are considered suitable for cotton cultivation. The yield of cotton in such soil is excellent. But now, wide varieties have come into the market, due to which cotton can be quickly grown even in hilly and sandy places, less water is required in cotton cultivation. Therefore it should be grown in well-drained soil. For this, the pH value of the land should be between 5.5 to 6.
Varieties Of Cotton
At present, many developed varieties of cotton are seen in the market, all these varieties have been kept in different categories. On the basis of the cotton fiber, their varieties have been kept in different categories. On the basis of the ratio, they are divided into three parts. Whose information is given as follows:-
Short Fiber Cotton
The fibers of this type of cotton are less than 3.5 cm long. It is a variety grown more in North India. It is grown more in Assam, Haryana, Rajasthan, Tripura, Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Meghalaya. Talking about production, 15% of the total production of cotton comes from this state.
Medium Fiber Cotton
The length of the cotton fibers falling in this category is between 3.5 to 5 cm. It comes under the mixed category of cotton, such a variety is produced in almost every part of India. This type of cotton accounts for about 45% of the production.
Large Fibrous Cotton
This cotton is considered to be the best among the categories of cotton, the length of this cotton fiber is more than 5 cm. This fiber is used in making high quality clothes. This variety is grown second in India, its cultivation is mainly done in the coastal parts, hence it is also called sea island cotton. Its share in the total production of cotton is up to 40%.
Climate And Temperature
Although cotton cultivation does not require any special climate, when the plants start bearing fruit, they are damaged by the frost falling in winter. It needs bright sunlight when the twigs start coming out in it.
There is no particular need for temperature in cotton cultivation. When the cotton seeds start germinating in the field, they need a 20-degree temperature. After this, a 25 to 30-degree temperature is required for its plants to grow. However, it can grow well even at higher temperatures.
Tillage For Cotton Cultivation
For this, first, get the field ploughed adequately, then leave it like this, then after adding manure of cow dung, get it pressed two to three times again so that the waste and manure will mix well in the soil.
After this, water should be applied to the field. After the water dries up, plough the area again. By doing this, all the weeds in the field will be removed and, after ploughing, once again, apply water in the field.
Planting Cotton Seeds
Before planting the cotton seeds in the field, they should be treated. Due to this, the risk of insect disease in the seeds is reduced. Seeds should be treated with carbosulfan or imidacloprid and planted in the field. While planting native varieties of seeds in the area, it is necessary to have a distance of 40 cm between two lines and 30 to 35 cm between two plants.
If we talk about the American variety of seeds, there should be a distance of 50 to 60 cm between two lines and 40 cm between two plants. These seeds should not be planted too much inside. It can be difficult for them to come out, and up to 4 kg of seeds can be planted per acre. Seeds should be treated with carbosulfan or imidacloprid and planted in the field. While planting native varieties of seeds in the area, it is necessary to have a distance of 40 cm between two lines and 30 to 35 cm between two plants. When the land is level, put fertilizer in the field and plough the field by placing a slat. Then on the second day, plant the seeds in the area. Planting cotton seeds in the field is considered better in the evening.
When the plants are about to flower in cotton cultivation, weeds should be given more attention. Many weeds grow at that time, and many kinds of insects are born. These pests cause many diseases in plants. To prevent these diseases, more attention should be paid to weed control.
For this, weeding and hoeing of the cotton field should be done from time to time. Weeding and hoeing should be started after 25 days of planting seeds in the field. Due to this, there is no hindrance in the growth of plants, and the plants can grow well.
To cultivate cotton, about 15 carts of cow dung manure must be applied per acre. After that, mix this manure well in that field. Then, at the time of sowing, an adequate amount of nitrogen and phosphorus should be applied in that field according to the variety.
If the seed is of hybrid Bt cotton, then a sufficient amount of zinc sulphate should be sprayed in the field. In the same American variety of cotton, an adequate amount of Phosphorus, DAP and Sulphur is sprayed in the area, and good yields are obtained.
Very little water is required in cotton cultivation, if the crop is grown in the rainy season, then it does not require the first irrigation, and if the cultivation is not done in the rainy season, then irrigation is done after 45 days.
Cotton plants grow well in more sunlight, so they should be irrigated only when needed after the first irrigation. Still, at the time of flowering in the plants, a proper amount of moisture should be maintained in the field so that the flowers of the plants do not fall, but more water should also not be given. This is because there can be a risk of spoilage of flowers.
Cotton Harvest Time
Harvesting of cotton should start from September to October. The first harvesting should be done when the cotton buds have bloomed up to 40 to 60%. When all the twigs are in full bloom, then pluck them.
Production And Benefits
Farmers get a good income from cotton cultivation. Different types of crops give different kinds of yields. For example, 20 to 25 quintals per hectare in native cotton and 30 quintals per hectare in American variety, and 30 to 40 quintals per hectare in Bt cotton. The market price of cotton is up to 5 thousand per quintal. Due to this, farmer brothers can earn three to four lakh per hectare by cultivating cotton at a time.
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