Between 50 to 70 million adults in the United States1 suffer from sleep and wakefulness disorders. Dyssomnia is a term used to describe a group of sleep disorders that have a detrimental impact on sleep quantity and quality2. You might have trouble falling asleep at night3, which is a symptom of insomnia, or you might feel the desire to sleep excessively, which is called hypersomnolence if you have dyssomnia.
Excessive daytime sleepiness or feeling unrested when you get up in the morning are also common dyssomnia symptoms. Depending on the sort of sleep disturbance you have, you may have more specific symptoms. Dyssomnias, unlike parasomnias, do not usually entail abnormal bodily behaviors while sleeping.
Dyssomnia can be brought on by a variety of circumstances, including sleep difficulties, mental health issues, and other physical conditions. It is beneficial to present a detailed picture of your habits and lifestyle while discussing dyssomnia with your healthcare professional. This includes any information on the medications you’re taking, your drug and alcohol use, and any recent life events that have affected your sleeping patterns. All of these things can have an effect on your sleep.
Dyssomnia comes in a variety of forms.
Dyssomnias are divided into three categories. These are determined by the source of insomnia:
- Sleep apnea (intrinsic sleep apnea
- Extrinsic sleep disorders are those that are caused by factors beyond of one’s control.
- Sleep disturbances caused by the circadian rhythm
Despite the fact that many sleep disorders have similar effects, they may require different diagnostic approaches and treatment plans.
Intrinsic Sleep Disorders (ISDs)
The group of dyssomnias known as intrinsic sleep disorders is caused by internal dysfunction4. Intrinsic sleep disorders are caused by a breakdown in the body’s intrinsic sleep-regulating system. Other medical anomalies relating to sleep can also cause these problems.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
While sleeping, those with sleep apnea have a partial or total collapse of the upper airway5. Snoring, choking, snorting, and temporarily stopping breathing are all symptoms of this respiratory sleep disorder. You may feel tired and have a headache in the morning. You may find it difficult to stay awake during the day and feel severe daytime sleepiness.
The asleep study is usually used to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea. To improve breathing during sleep, your healthcare practitioner may recommend a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device or surgical treatment. Limiting alcohol use and losing weight are two other approaches.
Narcolepsy is a persistent neurological disease in which the brain’s sleep-wake cycle is disrupted6. As a result, regardless of how much sleep they obtain at night, patients with narcolepsy usually experience extreme daytime sleepiness. Cataplexy, or sudden muscle weakness and loss of control, sleep paralysis, and hallucinations are some of the other symptoms.
Narcolepsy has no known cure. A handful of pharmacological therapy, on the other hand, can help patients with sleep disorders increase their alertness.
Insomnia is a sleep problem that makes it difficult for you to fall asleep7 and remain asleep. Short-term insomnia is defined as insomnia that lasts for a month or less and is frequently induced by life events. Chronic insomnia is defined as insomnia that lasts more than a month and is linked to other medical disorders or lifestyle behaviors. Chronic insomnia is experienced by up to 33% of adults8.
Insomnia can cause you to stay awake at night, sleep in brief bursts, wake up too early, or feel as if you haven’t slept at all. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be used to address underlying mental issues, and drugs can be used to alleviate insomnia symptoms.
Syndrome of Restless Legs
Uncontrollable movement9 of the legged, arms, and sometimes other body parts is a symptom of restless legs syndrome. Uncontrollable movements are sometimes accompanied by an unpleasant crawling sensation. Symptoms are more common when you are idle or resting, with a peak around bedtime. The symptoms can make it difficult to fall asleep and perhaps wake you up. As a result, you wake up feeling exhausted. Several medicines can help to relieve the discomfort associated with the syndrome, as well as minimize or eliminate the symptoms.
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD)
Periodic limb movement disorder, like restless legs syndrome, disrupts your sleep with undesired, frequent movements. Repetitive kicking or twitching of the legs during sleep is a symptom of periodic limb movement disorder. These motions can happen every 20 to 40 seconds or less. You may suffer excessive daytime sleepiness as a result of insufficient sleep. Periodic limb motion disorder is usually treated with the same medications as restless legs syndrome.
Hypersomnia have regular bouts of excessive daytime sleepiness10 and may fall asleep at inconvenient moments during the day. Even after a long amount of sleep, they frequently struggle to wake up. Napping does not always help to alleviate the discomfort. A underlying cause of hypersomnia could be narcolepsy, drugs, or a medical condition. Excessive drowsiness can be treated with medication.
Extrinsic sleep problems are dyssomnias brought on by external causes such as the environment or health practices.
Sleep hygiene is poor.
The term “sleep hygiene” refers to taking care of your sleeping patterns as a whole. The following are examples of good sleep hygiene11:
- Every day, I go to bed and wake up at the same hour.
- Prior to bedtime, ensure proper diet and avoid coffee and alcohol.
- Getting some exercise during the day
- Setting up a nighttime routine
- In the hours leading up to bedtime, stay away from blue light from electronics.
- Creating a distraction-free sleeping environment
Sleep hygiene can have a detrimental impact on both the number and quality of sleep you get. You may fall asleep during the day and find it difficult to concentrate if you don’t get enough sleep. Sleep deprivation might also impair your driving ability.
Nocturnal Eating Syndrome is a condition in which a person eats at night
The nocturnal eating syndrome is a type of eating disorder that occurs when you consume 25% or more of your daily calories12 after dinner or at night. Insomnia, the need to eat in order to fall rest, and a melancholy mood at night are some of the other symptoms. A discrepancy between the circadian rhythm and the rhythm of food intake appears to be the cause of the syndrome.
People with nocturnal eating syndrome can benefit from cognitive-behavioral treatment. Consult your doctor to figure out the best course of action.
Circadian rhythm sleep problems are caused by circadian rhythm irregularities13 or circadian rhythm misalignment with the environment, such as the light-dark cycle14. They can produce irritation and sadness, as well as insomnia or excessive sleepiness.
Shift Work Sleep Disorder
Shift work problem leads you to be out of sync with regular waking and sleeping hours, making it difficult to fall or stay asleep. The intensity of these symptoms is determined by the number of shifts worked, the length of the shifts, and the frequency with which the shifts are changed.
Symptoms can be treated by exposing yourself to strong light when you should be awake and keeping your bedroom dark and quiet. You can also wear shades on your way home during the day to avoid being exposed to light before going to bed. Sleep aids and finally woke medicines can help you maintain a consistent sleep-wake cycle in more severe situations.
Changes in your sleep-wake rhythm might create jet lag when you travel swiftly across and over two time zones. Experts advise that you change your sleep routine in the days leading up to your trip so that your sleep-wake timings are more in sync with the light-dark timetable of your destination. To assist your body adjust, expose yourself to daylight in the morning and darkness in the evening when you arrive.
Syndrome of a Delayed Sleep Phase
Adolescents are prone to delayed sleep phase syndrome. You will fall asleep and wake up later than usual if you have this disease. You’ll probably feel foggy or tired during the day if you have to get up earlier than you want to go to class or job. Importantly, persons with delayed sleep-phase disorders are unable to fall asleep earlier, even if they wish to. Before bedtime, light therapy and pineal supplements15 are two treatment alternatives.
Advanced Sleep-Phase Syndrome (ASPS)
when a person Advanced sleep phase syndrome,is also dyssomnia the polar opposite of sleep apnea syndrome, leads you to fall asleep and wake up early. This condition is more common in older people. Sleep masks and light-blocking goggles might help you avoid waking up too early because of the sun.
Sleep-Wake Disorder That Doesn’t Last 24 Hours
Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder is a more uncommon disorder in which a person’s sleep-wake pattern is longer than the typical 24 hours. Sleep and wake periods may be postponed by one to two hours each day. The condition affects between 40 and 60 percent of those who are blind16.