The first war of Independence or Indian Mutiny of 1857 was a significant awakening against the British regime. Although it was an unsuccessful event, it began Indian independence from the Britishers. There are several names for this war: First War of Independence, revolt, mutiny, etc. The revolt began on 10 May 1857 by the sepoys of Bengal Presidency against the Britishers as the sepoy mutiny. NCERT Solutions will help you to get complete information about the Revolt of 1857.
Causes of Revolt 1857
There were various causes of the revolt of 1857, which consisted of Social causes, economic causes, political causes, and military causes. Here we’ll talk about all the causes of the first war of independence.
- Spread of western culture, an act of enabling the Hindu Inheritance Act, which lets people inherit ancestral properties even after converting themselves to Christianity.
- Implementing a western education system will challenge the Hindu orthodox system.
- Abolition practices like Sati pratha and legalizing widow remarriage were considered a threat.
- If we talk about the political causes, it would be the expansion of British policy through the doctrine of lapse.
- There were dislodged people, like Rani Laxmi Bai’s adopted son was not allowed to sit on the throne.
- The annexation of Awadh, Satara, Nagpur, and Jhansi under the Doctrine of Lapse.
Note: Doctrine of Lapse is the annexation executed by Dalhousie in the late 1840s, which implies the prohibition of Hindu rulers without a natural heir from adopting a successor after the ruler died or surrendered.
- In the rural areas, the peasants and the zamindars were frustrated by the heavy taxes on the land and the problematic methods of revenue collection.
- Most of the sepoys belonged to the peasant class, which heavily affected the peasants’ grievances.
- There was a rush of British Manufactured goods after the Industrial Revolution in England, which majorly destroyed the textile industries of India.
- The Indian Sepoys would make up about 87% of the British Army in India but were considered inferior to the British soldiers
- European soldiers of the same rank get paid more than the Indian Sepoys.
- Lord Canning issued the General Services Enlistment Act in 1856, which said that the Indian Sepoys could also have the posting across seas.
- Centers of Revolt
- The center covers almost the entire country consisting of the neighborhood of Patna, Delhi, Assam, Jhansi, Bihar, and many more.
|Delhi||Bahadur Shah II, General Bakht Khan|
|Delhi||Hakim Ahsanullah (Chief advisor to Bahadur Shah II)|
|Lucknow||Begum Hazrat Mahal, Birjis Qadir, Ahmadullah (advisor of the ex-Nawab of Awadh)|
|Kanpur||Nana Sahib, Rao Sahib (nephew of Nana), Tantia Tope, Azimullah Khan (advisor of Nana Sahib)|
|Bihar (Jagdishpur)||Kunwar Singh, Amar Singh|
|Allahabad and Banaras||Maulvi Liyakat Ali|
|Faizabad||Maulvi Ahmadullah (He declared the Revolt as Jihad against English)|
|Farrukhabad||Tufzal Hasan Khan|
|Moradabad||Abdul Ali Khan|
|Bareilly||Khan Bahadur Khan|
|Assam||Kandapareshwar Singh, Manorama Datta|
|Orissa||Surendra Shahi, Ujjwal Shahi|
|Kullu||Raja Pratap Singh|
|Rajasthan||Jaidayal Singh and Hardayal Singh|
|Mathura||Sevi Singh, Kadam Singh|
Also check: NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science
Suppression of Revolt 1857
The Britishers considered this revolt as a significant threat to their regime and changed their policies to overcome the situation.
|Places of Revolt||Leaders Associated||Suppressing Officials|
|Delhi||Bahadur Shah II||John Nicholson|
|Lucknow||Begum Hazrat Mahal||Henry Lawrence|
|Kanpur||Nana Saheb||Sir Colin Campbell|
|Jhansi & Gwalior||Lakshmi Bai & Tantia Tope||General Hugh Rose|
|Bareilly||Khan Bahadur Khan||Sir Colin Campbell|
|Allahabad and Banaras||Maulvi Liyakat Ali||Colonel Once|
|Bihar||Kunwar Singh||William Taylor|
Causes of Failure of the Revolt
- There was no clear understanding of the British rules and the plan was poorly made.
- Modern Education Indians were taking the revolt as backward
- The resources were less in terms of men and money than the Britishers.
- Many zamindars, wealthy merchants, and traders supported the Britishers.
- The rulers of the local cities like Hyderabad, Gwalior, Indore, Jodhpur, Patiala, Kashmir, Bhopal, Sindh, and Nepal are active supporters of the Britishers.
- There was a lack of leadership quality. Some people were adequate but not that extinct.
Result of the Revolt
- The revolt marked the end of the East India Company
- India now came under the direct rule of the British Crown, and Queen Victoria took the Indian administration directly under the rule of the British Parliament.
- The army was restructured, but the armory was still in the hands of the Britishers.
- Attention will be paid to the customers and the traditions of India.
The Revolution of 1857, or the first war of Independence, was an unusual historical event. While it united many sections of India for a common cause, it also took many things from India. Although the revolt failed to achieve its goal, it measured Indian nationalism.
Q1. What are the causes of the revolt of 1857?
Ans- There were four cases of the revolt of 1857: Social cause, Economic cause, Political Cause, and Military Cause.
Q2. What was the slogan of the revolt of 1857?
Ans– Inqalaab Zindabad became one of the rallying cries, which was the First War of Independence motto long live the revolution.
Q3. Who started the revolt of 1857?
Ans– Sepoy Mangal Pandey of the 34th Bengal Native Infantrygan to the revolt on March 29, 1857, at the Barrackpore, attacking the officer with the greased Enfield Cartridge.
The author of this blog-Martin victor